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1.
Neurol Res ; 46(6): 568-577, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569564

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cervical mobilization on joint position sense, balance and gait in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: Sixteen MS patients received traditional rehabilitation and traditional rehabilitation+cervical mobilization treatments in different orders, 2 days a week for 4 weeks. For the cervical mobilization, joint traction and shifts with myofascial release techniques were applied. Joint position sense was evaluated from the bilateral knee and ankle joints with a digital goniometer, balanced with the Berg Balance Test (BBT), the Functional Reach Test, and gait with the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and the Timed 25-Foot Walk Test. RESULTS: Improvements were determined in joint position sense, balance, gait with both treatment methods (p < 0.05). With the addition of cervical mobilization to traditional treatment, there was observed to be an increased effect carried over in knee joint position sense and BBT (p < 0.05). The BBT and DGI scores improved in the group applied with cervical mobilization following the washout period (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cervical mobilization could be effective in improving joint position sense, balance and gait, and accelerated improvements in a short time. The application of cervical mobilization could be a supportive treatment method to improve position sense, balance and gait in patients with MS.


Asunto(s)
Estudios Cruzados , Marcha , Esclerosis Múltiple , Equilibrio Postural , Humanos , Femenino , Equilibrio Postural/fisiología , Adulto , Masculino , Esclerosis Múltiple/fisiopatología , Esclerosis Múltiple/complicaciones , Esclerosis Múltiple/rehabilitación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Marcha/fisiología , Propiocepción/fisiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vértebras Cervicales
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(14): e37686, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579054

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) is a promising rehabilitation treatment for upper-limb motor recovery in stroke patients. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying its clinical efficacy remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the immediate modulatory effects of EA on brain network functional connectivity and topological properties. METHODS: The randomized, single-blinded, self-controlled two-period crossover trial was conducted among 52 patients with subacute subcortical stroke. These patients were randomly allocated to receive either EA as the initial intervention or sham electroacupuncture (SEA) as the initial intervention. After a washout period of 24 hours, participants underwent the alternate intervention (SEA or EA). Resting state electroencephalography signals were recorded synchronously throughout both phases of the intervention. The functional connectivity (FC) of the parietofrontal network and small-world (SW) property indices of the whole-brain network were compared across the entire course of the two interventions. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that EA significantly altered ipsilesional parietofrontal network connectivity in the alpha and beta bands (alpha: F = 5.05, P = .011; beta: F = 3.295, P = .047), whereas no significant changes were observed in the SEA group. When comparing between groups, EA significantly downregulated ipsilesional parietofrontal network connectivity in both the alpha and beta bands during stimulation (alpha: t = -1.998, P = .049; beta: t = -2.342, P = .022). Significant differences were also observed in the main effects of time and the group × time interaction for the SW index (time: F = 5.516, P = .026; group × time: F = 6.892, P = .01). In terms of between-group comparisons, the EA group exhibited a significantly higher SW index than the SEA group at the post-stimulation stage (t = 2.379, P = .018). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that EA downregulates ipsilesional parietofrontal network connectivity and enhances SW properties, providing a potential neurophysiological mechanism for facilitating motor performance in stroke patients.


Asunto(s)
Electroacupuntura , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Electroacupuntura/métodos , Estudios Cruzados , Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Encéfalo , Electroencefalografía
3.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 21(1): 2337252, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572744

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rapid regeneration after intense exercise is essential for competitive athletes. Based on this assumption, supplementation strategies, focusing on food supplements, are increasing to improve the recovery processes. One such supplement is cannabidiol (CBD) which is gaining more attention in competitive sports. However, the evidence is still lacking and there are no data available about the effect of a short-term chronic application. METHODS: A three-arm double-blind cross-over study was conducted to determine the effects of two different CBD products on performance, muscle damage and inflammatory processes in well-trained athletes. In total 17 subjects took successfully part in this study. Each subject underwent the six-day, high-intensity training protocol three times. After each training session, each subject took either a placebo or a CBD product (60 mg of oil or solubilisate). Between the intervention phases, at least four weeks of washout period was conducted. Before and after the training protocols the performance capacity in countermovement jump (CMJ), back squat (BS), bench press (BP) and 1-mile run were measured and biomarkers for muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin), inflammatory processes (interleukin 6 and 10) and immune cell activity (ratios of neutrophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and, platelets) were analyzed. For statistical analyses, the current version of R and a linear mixed model was used. RESULTS: It could identify different effects of the training protocol depending on performance level (advanced or highly advanced athletes) (p < .05). Regardless of the performance level, muscle damage and a reduction in performance could be induced by the training protocol. Only CBD oil was associated with a reduction in myoglobin concentration (p < .05) in advanced athletes. Concerning immune activity, a significant decrease in platelets lymphocyte ratios was observed in advanced athletes after placebo treatment (p < .05). CBD oil application showed a slight inhibitory effect (p < .10). Moreover, the reduction in performance differs between the performance levels. A significant decrease in CMJ was observed in advanced athletes and a decreasing trend in BS was observed in highly advanced athletes after placebo treatment (p < 0.10). Both CBD products do not affect performance parameters. For inflammatory parameters, no effects were observed. CONCLUSION: It was found that the performance level of the subjects was a decisive factor and that they responded differently to the training protocol and the CBD application. However, no clear effects of either CBD product were found and further research is needed to identify the long-term effects of CBD application.


Asunto(s)
Cannabidiol , Deportes , Humanos , Estudios Cruzados , Cannabidiol/farmacología , Mioglobina , Músculo Esquelético , Atletas , Método Doble Ciego , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
4.
Trials ; 25(1): 242, 2024 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582874

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is a significant public health problem, is very prevalent, and is often characterized by the persistence of symptoms. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) may benefit people with chronic LBP because it can activate descending inhibitory pathways and inhibit central excitability. However, previous studies that have investigated the effects of TENS on pain in people with LBP have failed to use proper intensities of current, and the timing of the assessment of pain was not performed during the peak of the analgesic response or functional activities. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the effects of TENS on measures of pain, function, and descending inhibition using the maximal tolerable intensity of TENS in participants with LBP. METHODS/DESIGN: This study will be a randomized crossover trial. The participants for this study will be recruited from various places, including the University of Hartford, physical therapy clinics, and local businesses in the Hartford area, as well as online websites geared towards clinical trial recruitment. A total of 34 participants will receive all three treatments: active TENS, placebo TENS, and no treatment control. The treatment order will be randomized using a website-based randomization tool. For active TENS, a modulating frequency of 2-125 Hz will be applied with a variable pulse duration and maximal tolerable intensity for 30 min. The TENS will be left on for post-treatment testing to assess the effects during its maximally effective period for a total of 50 to 60 min. Furthermore, the intensity may be turned down if muscle twitching is present to ensure blinding of the evaluator. For placebo TENS, the unit will deliver current for 45 s, ramping to 0 in the last 15 s. The primary outcome will be pain intensity at rest and with movement, determined using the numerical pain rating scale. The secondary outcomes will be pressure pain threshold, heat pain threshold, temporal summation of pain, conditioned pain modulation, sit-to-stand test, and repeated trunk flexion. The assessments will be performed immediately before and after treatment. Statistical analysis of the data obtained will consider a significance level of p < 0.05. DISCUSSION: This study will provide evidence concerning the effects and mechanisms of TENS treatment in participants with chronic non-specific low back pain. The outcomes, including pain, function, and descending inhibition, will help us gain a greater understanding of how TENS can be used for these participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05812885. Registered on 24th May 2023.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de la Región Lumbar , Estimulación Eléctrica Transcutánea del Nervio , Humanos , Estimulación Eléctrica Transcutánea del Nervio/efectos adversos , Estimulación Eléctrica Transcutánea del Nervio/métodos , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/diagnóstico , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/terapia , Estudios Cruzados , Umbral del Dolor , Dimensión del Dolor , Resultado del Tratamiento , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
5.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 21(1): 61, 2024 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658998

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology offers children with quadriplegic cerebral palsy unique opportunities for communication, environmental exploration, learning, and game play. Research in adults demonstrates a negative impact of fatigue on BCI enjoyment, while effects on BCI performance are variable. To date, there have been no pediatric studies of BCI fatigue. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of two different BCI paradigms, motor imagery and visual P300, on the development of self-reported fatigue and an electroencephalography (EEG) biomarker of fatigue in typically developing children. METHODS: Thirty-seven typically-developing school-aged children were recruited to a prospective, crossover study. Participants attended three sessions: (A) motor imagery-BCI, (B) visual P300-BCI, and (C) video viewing (control). The motor imagery task involved an imagined left- or right-hand squeeze. The P300 task involved attending to one square on a 3 × 3 grid during a random single flash sequence. Each paradigm had respective calibration periods and a similar visual counting game. Primary outcomes were self-reported fatigue and the power of the EEG alpha band both collected during resting-state periods pre- and post-task. Self-reported fatigue was measured using a 10-point visual analog scale. EEG alpha band power was calculated as the integrated power spectral density from 8 to 12 Hz of the EEG spectrum. RESULTS: Thirty-two children completed the protocol (age range 7-16, 63% female). Self-reported fatigue and EEG alpha band power increased across all sessions (F(1,155) = 33.9, p < 0.001; F = 5.0(1,149), p = 0.027 respectively). No differences in fatigue development were observed between session types. There was no correlation between self-reported fatigue and EEG alpha band power change. BCI performance varied between participants and paradigms as expected but was not associated with self-reported fatigue or EEG alpha band power. CONCLUSION: Short periods (30-mintues) of BCI use can increase self-reported fatigue and EEG alpha band power to a similar degree in children performing motor imagery and P300 BCI paradigms. Performance was not associated with our measures of fatigue; the impact of fatigue on useability and enjoyment is unclear. Our results reflect the variability of fatigue and the BCI experience more broadly in children and warrant further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Interfaces Cerebro-Computador , Electroencefalografía , Potenciales Relacionados con Evento P300 , Fatiga , Imaginación , Humanos , Niño , Masculino , Femenino , Potenciales Relacionados con Evento P300/fisiología , Fatiga/fisiopatología , Fatiga/psicología , Imaginación/fisiología , Estudios Cruzados , Adolescente , Estudios Prospectivos
6.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 163, 2024 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641782

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common adverse events in cancer patients and can negatively affect their quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an electric massage chair (EMC) for the treatment of CINV. METHODS: A randomized phase II cross-over trial was conducted on solid cancer patients who received moderate (MEC) to high emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). The participants were randomly assigned to receive their first chemotherapy either on a standard bed (Group A) or in an EMC (Group B) during the infusion. The patients were then crossed over to the next cycle. CINV and QoL questionnaires were collected from the participants. RESULTS: A total of 59 patients completed the trial protocol and were included in the analysis, with 29 and 30 patients in Groups A and B, respectively. The mean INVR (Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching) score in the 2nd day of the first cycle was higher in Group B (3.63 ± 5.35) than Group A (2.76 ± 4.78), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.5367). The complete response rate showed little difference between the groups. Among the high-emetic risk subgroups, patients who received HEC (p = 0.04595), younger patients (p = 0.0108), and non-colorectal cancer patients (p = 0.0495) presented significantly lower CINV scores when EMC was applied. CONCLUSION: Overall, there was no significant difference in INVR scores between standard care and EMC. Applying EMC at the first chemotherapy infusion may help preserve QoL and reduce CINV in high-risk patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: KCT0008200, 17/02/2023, Retrospectively registered.


Asunto(s)
Antieméticos , Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Antieméticos/uso terapéutico , Antieméticos/efectos adversos , Estudios Cruzados , Vómitos/terapia , Vómitos/tratamiento farmacológico , Náusea/terapia , Náusea/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9316, 2024 04 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654027

RESUMEN

Floatation-REST (Reduced Environmental Stimulation Therapy) minimizes stimulation of the nervous system by immersing subjects in an environment without sound or light while they effortlessly float in thermoneutral water supersaturated with Epsom salt. Here we investigated the relationship between altered states of consciousness (ASC) and its association with the affective changes induced by Floatation-REST. Using a within-subject crossover design, 50 healthy subjects were randomized to 60 min of Floatation-REST or 60 min of Bed-REST (an active control condition that entailed lying supine on a warm waterbed in a dark and quiet room). Following Floatation-REST, subjects felt significantly more relaxed, less anxious, and less tired than after Bed-REST. Floatation-REST also induced significantly more pronounced ASC characterized by the dissolution of body boundaries and the distortion of subjective time. The loss of body boundaries mediated the loss of anxiety, revealing a novel mechanism by which Floatation-REST exerts its anxiolytic effect.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Conciencia , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Estado de Conciencia/fisiología , Ansiedad , Adulto Joven , Estudios Cruzados , Reposo en Cama , Descanso/fisiología
8.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 114(5): 513-523, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656326

RESUMEN

Previously, we demonstrated that prebiotics may provide a complementary strategy for increasing calcium (Ca) absorption in adolescents which may improve long-term bone health. However, not all children responded to prebiotic intervention. We determine if certain baseline characteristics of gut microbiome composition predict prebiotic responsiveness. In this secondary analysis, we compared differences in relative microbiota taxa abundance between responders (greater than or equal to 3% increase in Ca absorption) and non-responders (less than 3% increase). Dual stable isotope methodologies were used to assess fractional Ca absorption at the end of crossover treatments with placebo, 10, and 20 g/day of soluble corn fiber (SCF). Microbial DNA was obtained from stool samples collected before and after each intervention. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to taxonomically characterize the gut microbiome. Machine learning techniques were used to build a predictive model for identifying responders based on baseline relative taxa abundances. Model output was used to infer which features contributed most to prediction accuracy. We identified 19 microbial features out of the 221 observed that predicted responsiveness with 96.0% average accuracy. The results suggest a simplified prescreening can be performed to determine if a subject's bone health may benefit from a prebiotic. Additionally, the findings provide insight and prompt further investigation into the metabolic and genetic underpinnings affecting calcium absorption during pubertal bone development.


Asunto(s)
Calcio , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prebióticos , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Calcio/metabolismo , Estudios Cruzados , Heces/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Proyectos Piloto , Prebióticos/administración & dosificación
9.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612968

RESUMEN

Presbyopia is a global problem with an estimated 1.3 billion patients worldwide. In the area of functional food applications, dietary supplements or herbs, there are very few reports describing the positive effects of their use. In the available literature, there is a lack of studies in humans as well as on an animal model of extracts containing, simultaneously, compounds from the polyphenol group (in particular, anthocyanins) and iridoids, so we undertook a study of the effects of a preparation composed of these compounds on a condition of the organ of vision. Our previous experience on a rabbit model proved the positive effect of taking an oral extract of Cornus mas in stabilizing the intraocular pressure of the eye. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an orally administered ternary compound preparation on the status of physiological parameters of the ocular organ. The preparation contained an extract of the chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa, the honeysuckle berry Lonicera caerulea L., and the bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus (hereafter AKB) standardized for anthocyanins and iridoids, as bioactive compounds known from the literature. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study lasting with a "wash-out" period of 17 weeks evaluated a group of 23 people over the age of 50, who were subjects with presbyopia and burdened by prolonged work in front of screen monitors. The group of volunteers was recruited from people who perform white-collar jobs on a daily basis. The effects of the test substances contained in the preparation on visual acuity for distance and near, sense of contrast for distance and near, intraocular pressure, and conjunctival lubrication, tested by Schirmer test, LIPCOF index and TBUT test, and visual field test were evaluated. Anthocyanins (including cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, delphinidin 3-O-arabinoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-arabinoside) and iridoids (including loganin, sweroside, loganic acid) were identified as substances present in the extract obtained by HPLC-MS. The preliminary results showed that the composition of AKB applied orally does not change visual acuity in the first 6 weeks of administration. Only in the next cycle of the study was an improvement in near visual acuity observed in 92.3% of the patients. This may indicate potential to correct near vision in presbyopic patients. On the other hand, an improvement in conjunctival wetting was observed in the Schirmer test at the beginning of week 6 of administration in 80% of patients. This effect was weakened in subsequent weeks of conducting the experiment to 61.5%. The improvement in conjunctival hydration in the Schirmer test shows the potential beneficial effect of the AKB formulation in a group of patients with dry eye syndrome. This is the first study of a preparation based on natural, standardized extracts of chokeberry, honeysuckle berry, and bilberry. Preliminary studies show an improvement in near visual acuity and conjunctival hydration on the Schirmer test, but this needs to be confirmed in further studies.


Asunto(s)
Lonicera , Photinia , Presbiopía , Vaccinium myrtillus , Animales , Humanos , Conejos , Presbiopía/tratamiento farmacológico , Antocianinas , Estudios Cruzados , Agudeza Visual , Conjuntiva , Iridoides
10.
J Rehabil Med ; 56: jrm18253, 2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450442

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical effects of combining motor imagery-based neurofeedback training with bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for upper limb motor function in subacute and chronic stroke. DESIGN: Clinical trial following an AB/BA crossover design with counterbalanced assignment. SUBJECTS: Twenty individuals with subacute (n = 4) or chronic stroke (n = 16). METHODS: Ten consecutive sessions of bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation alone (therapy A) were compared vs a combination of10 consecutive sessions of bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with 12 non-consecutive sessions of motor imagery-based neurofeedback training (therapy B). Patients received both therapies (1-month washout period), in sequence AB or BA. Participants were assessed before and after each therapy and at 15-days follow-up, using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-upper limb, hand-grip strength, and the Nottingham Sensory Assessment as primary outcome measures. RESULTS: Both therapies resulted in improved functionality and sensory function. Therapy B consistently exhibited superior effects compared with therapy A, according to Fugl-Meyer Assessment and tactile and kinaesthetic sensory function across multiple time-points, irrespective of treatment sequence. No statistically significant differences between therapies were found for hand-grip strength. CONCLUSION: Following subacute and chronic stroke, integrating bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor imagery-based neurofeedback training has the potential to enhance functional performance compared with using bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation alone in upper limb recovery.


Asunto(s)
Neurorretroalimentación , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Estudios Cruzados , Fuerza de la Mano , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Estimulación Magnética Transcraneal , Extremidad Superior
11.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474825

RESUMEN

Chlorella supplementation is reported to improve V˙O2max following extended supplementation periods (~3 weeks). However, there is little research on its impact over submaximal exercise intensities and following shorter supplementation regimens. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of 6 g/day 2-day chlorella supplementation on exercise performance in healthy young adults. Twenty young healthy adults (Males = 16, Females = 4) (Age 22 ± 6 years, V˙O2max 42.7 ± 9.6 mL/(kg·min)) were recruited for this double-blinded, randomised cross-over study. Participants ingested 6 g/day of chlorella or a placebo for 2 days, with a one-week washout period between trials. Exercise testing consisted of a 20 min submaximal cycle at 40% of their work rate max (WRmax) (watts), followed by an incremental V˙O2max test. Lactate (mmol/L), heart rate (b/min), oxygen consumption (mL/(kg·min)), O2 pulse (mL/beat), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and WRmax were compared across conditions. Following chlorella supplementation, blood lactate levels were significantly lower (p < 0.05) during submaximal exercise (3.05 ± 0.92 mmol/L vs. 2.67 ± 0.79 mmol/L) and following V˙O2max tests (12.79 ± 2.61 mmol/L vs. 11.56 ± 3.43 mmol/L). The O2 pulse was significantly higher (p < 0.05) following chlorella supplementation during submaximal (12.6 ± 3.5 mL/beat vs. 13.1 ± 3.5 mL/beat) and maximal exercise intensity (16.7 ± 4.6 mL/beat vs. 17.2 ± 4.5 mL/beat). No differences existed between conditions for oxygen consumption, RER, V˙O2max, or WRmax. A total of 2 days of 6 g/day chlorella supplementation appears to lower the blood lactate response and increase O2 pulse during both submaximal and maximal intensity exercise but did not lead to any improvements in V˙O2max.


Asunto(s)
Chlorella , Ácido Láctico , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Estudios Cruzados , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Suplementos Dietéticos
12.
J Sports Sci Med ; 23(1): 228-235, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38455435

RESUMEN

Despite the numerous scientific evidence on the topic, there is no clear and consistent answer that clarifies the true effects of beetroot juice (BJ) supplementation on different types of physical performance. This study examined whether an acute intake of BJ improves swimming performance, physiological variables of anaerobic metabolism, or subjective measures during high-intensity interval exercise with incomplete rest in competitive swimmers. Eighteen competitive swimmers (nine females and nine males) participated in this cross-over randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind and counterbalanced study. In two trials, swimmers ingested BJ (70 mL, 6.4 mmol/400 mg NO3-) or placebo (PLA) (70 mL, 0.04 mmol/3 mg NO3-) three hours before a 2×6×100 m maximal effort with 40 seconds rest between repetitions and three minutes between blocks. The 100 m times showed no differences between groups (p > 0.05), but there was an interaction between block×repetition×condition (F5 = 3.10; p = 0.046; ηp2 = 0.54), indicating that the BJ group decreased the time of the sixth repetition of block2 compared to block1 (p = 0.01). Lactate concentration showed no differences between conditions (p > 0.05), but there was a main effect of block (ηp2 = 0.60) and a block×repetition interaction (ηp2 = 0.70), indicating higher values in block2 and increasing values between repetitions in block1. The subjective scales, perception of exertion (RPE) and Total Quality Recovery (TQR), showed no effects of condition (p > 0.05), but BJ swimmers had a greater TQR in the last repetitions of each block. In conclusion, a single dose of BJ did not enhance intermittent swimming performance or modified the physiological (lactate and heart rate) or subjective (RPE and TQR) variables; although there was a possible positive effect on the exercise tolerance at the end of effort.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético , Beta vulgaris , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Natación/fisiología , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Jugos de Frutas y Vegetales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Estudios Cruzados , Antioxidantes , Ácido Láctico
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 119(5): 1200-1215, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452857

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Heat treatments of dairy, including pasteurization and ultra-high temperature (UHT) processing, alter milk macromolecular structures, and ultimately affect digestion. In vitro, animal, and human studies show faster nutrient release or circulating appearance after consuming UHT milk (UHT-M) compared with pasteurized milk (PAST-M), with a faster gastric emptying (GE) rate proposed as a possible mechanism. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of milk heat treatment on GE as a mechanism of faster nutrient appearance in blood. We hypothesized that GE and circulating nutrient delivery following consumption would be faster for UHT-M than PAST-M. METHODS: In this double-blind randomized controlled cross-over trial, healthy female (n = 20; 27.3 ± 1.4 y, mean ± SD) habitual dairy consumers, consumed 500 mL of either homogenized bovine UHT-M or PAST-M (1340 compared with 1320 kJ). Gastric content volume (GCV) emptying half-time (T50) was assessed over 3 h by magnetic resonance imaging subjective digestive symptoms, plasma amino acid, lipid and B vitamin concentrations, and gastric myoelectrical activity were measured over 5 h. RESULTS: Although GCV T50 did not differ (102 ± 7 min compared with 89 ± 8 min, mean ± SEM, UHT-M and PAST-M, respectively; P = 0.051), GCV time to emptying 25% of the volume was 31% longer following UHT-M compared with PAST-M (42 ± 2 compared with 32 ± 4 min, P = 0.004). Although GCV remained larger for a longer duration following UHT-M (treatment × time interaction, P = 0.002), plasma essential amino acid AUC was greater following UHT-M than PAST-M (55,324 ± 3809 compared with 36,598 ± 5673 µmol·min·L-1, P = 0.006). Heat treatment did not impact gastric myoelectrical activity, plasma appetite hormone markers or subjective appetite scores. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectations, GE was slower with UHT-M, yet, as anticipated, aminoacidemia was greater. The larger GCV following UHT-M suggests that gastric volume may poorly predict circulating nutrient appearance from complex food matrices. Dairy heat treatment may be an effective tool to modify nutrient release by impacting digestion kinetics. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: www.anzctr.org.au (ACTRN12620000172909).


Asunto(s)
Estudios Cruzados , Vaciamiento Gástrico , Calor , Leche , Pasteurización , Femenino , Animales , Humanos , Leche/química , Adulto , Bovinos , Método Doble Ciego , Nutrientes , Adulto Joven
14.
Biol Res Nurs ; 26(3): 418-428, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439651

RESUMEN

Background. Constipation is a common distressing problem in patients with schizophrenia that can cause complications and impair quality of life. Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of applying auricular acupressure (AA) treatment in improving constipation in patients with schizophrenia. Methods. A crossover randomized controlled trial design was performed from April 2022 to December 2023 at four psychiatric rehabilitation care centers. A total of 23 patients with schizophrenia received an AA intervention or usual care according to the designated treatment sequences. Measurements comprised subjective assessment of constipation by the Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms (PAC-SYM) questionnaire, an objective assessment of the stool pattern rated by a Bristol stool form scale, and heart rate variability. A generalized estimating equation model was used for data analyses. Results. After completing an 8-week AA intervention stimulating the Shenmen, San Jiao, Large intestine and Rectum, the AA group exhibited lower scores in the PAC-SYM total score (difference = -12.66, ,0.001), and the subscales: abdominal (difference = -3.36, p < .001), rectal (difference = -3.51, p < .001), and stool (difference = -5.79, p < .001), compared to those receiving usual care. The cases of constipation indicated by type 1 and type 2 of the BSF scale significantly decreased after the 8-week AA intervention. Moreover, the AA group displayed more parasympathetic dominance compared to the usual care group, with a low frequency to high frequency ratio of -1.15. Conclusion. AA is an effective non-pharmacological method for improving subjective constipation symptoms and objective stool pattern in patients with schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Acupresión , Estreñimiento , Estudios Cruzados , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Estreñimiento/terapia , Estreñimiento/fisiopatología , Esquizofrenia/complicaciones , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatología , Masculino , Femenino , Proyectos Piloto , Adulto , Acupresión/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Acupuntura Auricular/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Calidad de Vida , Resultado del Tratamiento
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 119(5): 1175-1186, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484976

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are proposed to play a role in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and are considered emerging markers of CVDs. n-3 PUFAs are abundant in oily fish and fish oil and are reported to reduce CVD risk, but there has been little research to date examining the effects of n-3 PUFAs on the generation and function of EVs. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of fish oil supplementation on the number, generation, and function of EVs in subjects with moderate risk of CVDs. METHODS: A total of 40 participants with moderate risk of CVDs were supplemented with capsules containing either fish oil (1.9 g/d n-3 PUFAs) or control oil (high-oleic safflower oil) for 12 wk in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover intervention study. The effects of fish oil supplementation on conventional CVD and thrombogenic risk markers were measured, along with the number and fatty acid composition of circulating and platelet-derived EVs (PDEVs). PDEV proteome profiles were evaluated, and their impact on coagulation was assessed using assays including fibrin clot formation, thrombin generation, fibrinolysis, and ex vivo thrombus formation. RESULTS: n-3 PUFAs decreased the numbers of circulating EVs by 27%, doubled their n-3 PUFA content, and reduced their capacity to support thrombin generation by >20% in subjects at moderate risk of CVDs. EVs derived from n-3 PUFA-enriched platelets in vitro also resulted in lower thrombin generation, but did not alter thrombus formation in a whole blood ex vivo assay. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary n-3 PUFAs alter the number, composition, and function of EVs, reducing their coagulatory activity. This study provides clear evidence that EVs support thrombin generation and that this EV-dependent thrombin generation is reduced by n-3 PUFAs, which has implications for prevention and treatment of thrombosis. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03203512.


Asunto(s)
Coagulación Sanguínea , Plaquetas , Estudios Cruzados , Vesículas Extracelulares , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Humanos , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/farmacología , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Método Doble Ciego , Coagulación Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Plaquetas/efectos de los fármacos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Adulto , Aceites de Pescado/farmacología , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Anciano , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo
16.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 60: 48-58, 2024 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479939

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sleep disturbances are widespread in modern societies and linked to a variety of diseases, creating an urgent need for the development of products that help combat sleep difficulties. One suitable nutritional supplement may be a fish hydrolysate composed of low molecular weight peptides. METHODS: This two-arm, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study investigated the effect of a 4-week fish hydrolysate intervention on sleep in a healthy German population reporting poor sleep quality, assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Further sleep parameters were measured using an online diary and a wrist wearable device. Additionally, questionnaires related to stress, anxiety, depression, and well-being were evaluated and salivary cortisol and product satisfaction were assessed. RESULTS: The 4-week fish hydrolysate supplementation significantly improved subjective sleep quality measured with the PSQI-score (p = .002). Moreover, individuals reported improvements in sleep efficacy and a reduction in sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness during fish hydrolysate intake (p = .013, p = .046, p = .004 respectively), but not during placebo phase (all p > .05). No significant intra-individual differences were found between fish hydrolysate and placebo supplementation (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Although no significant intra-individual differences were found between fish hydrolysate and placebo supplementation, the significant improvement in subjective sleep quality from baseline to treatment phase suggests that fish hydrolysate is a safe nutritional supplement to support individuals with self-reported sleep problems. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with the Identifier NCT04983355.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Calidad del Sueño , Humanos , Estudios Cruzados , Resultado del Tratamiento , Sueño , Suplementos Dietéticos
17.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 32: e4101, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Español, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511731

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the effects of a Mindfulness-based intervention on nurse leaders' emotional intelligence and resilience. METHOD: a pilot study of a randomized crossover clinical trial. The sample (n=32) was randomized into Group A (n=18) and Group B (n=14) and evaluated at the pre-test, post-test and follow-up moments. The outcomes were assessed using the Emotional Intelligence Measure, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Questionnaire and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, and analyzed using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. RESULTS: a total of 32 nurses with a mean age of 42.6 years old were evaluated. The analyses showed significant interactions between the effects of the group x moment factors on the Self-motivation (p=0.005), Sociability (p<0.001), Self-control (p=0.013), and Total (p=0.002) emotional intelligence skill scores; as well as on the Observe (p=0.042), Describe (p=0.008), Non-judgment (p<0.001), Act with awareness (p=0.004) and Total (p<0.001) mindfulness facets. Post-test: there was a statistically significant increase in the Sociability (p=0.009) and Self-control (p=0.015) emotional intelligence skills; as well as in the Non-judgment (p=0.022) and Total (p=0.002) mindfulness facets. Follow-up: a significant increase was observed in the Non-judgment (p=0.024) and Total (p=0.026) mindfulness facets. The "resilience" variable did not present statistical significance in the "group x moment" factor, both in the post-test and during follow-up. CONCLUSION: the Mindfulness-based intervention used proved to be effective in increasing nurse leaders' emotional intelligence and dispositional mindfulness skills. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (RBR-3c62gy), registered on March 4 th , 2020, updated on September 16 th , 2022. BACKGROUND: (1) Unpublished study of a Mindfulness-based intervention with nurse leaders. BACKGROUND: (2) Positive effect on the participants' emotional intelligence and mindfulness. BACKGROUND: (3) Advances in knowledge about emotional intelligence and leadership resilience. BACKGROUND: (4) It encourages the implementation of sensitive and innovative health strategies.


Asunto(s)
Atención Plena , Resiliencia Psicológica , Adulto , Humanos , Inteligencia Emocional , Liderazgo , Proyectos Piloto , Estudios Cruzados
18.
Biom J ; 66(2): e2200333, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499515

RESUMEN

Many statistical models have been proposed in the literature for the analysis of longitudinal data. One may propose to model two or more correlated longitudinal processes simultaneously, with a goal of understanding their association over time. Joint modeling is then required to carefully study the association structure among the outcomes as well as drawing joint inferences about the different outcomes. In this study, we sought to model the associations among six nutrition outcomes while circumventing the computational challenge posed by their clustered and high-dimensional nature. We analyzed data from a 2 × $\times$ 2 randomized crossover trial conducted in Kenya, to compare the effect of high-dose and low-dose iodine in household salt on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in women of reproductive age and their household matching pair of school-aged children. Two additional outcomes, namely, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in women and children were measured repeatedly to monitor the amount of iodine excreted through urine. We extended the model proposed by Mwangi et al. (2021, Communications in Statistics: Case Studies, Data Analysis and Applications, 7(3), 413-431) allowing flexible piecewise joint models for six outcomes to depend on separate random effects, which are themselves correlated. This entailed fitting 15 bivariate general linear mixed models and deriving inference for the joint model using pseudo-likelihood theory. We analyzed the outcomes separately and jointly using piecewise linear mixed-effects (PLME) model and further validated the results using current state-of-the-art Jones and Kenward methodology (JKME model) used for analyzing randomized crossover trials. The results indicate that high-dose iodine in salt significantly reduced blood pressure (BP) compared to low-dose iodine in salt. Estimates for the random effects and residual error components showed that SBP and DBP had strong positive correlation, with effect of the random slope indicating that significantly related outcomes are strongly associated in their evolution. There was a moderately strong inverse relationship between evolutions of UIC and BP both in women and children. These findings confirmed the original hypothesis that high-dose iodine salt has significant lowering effect on BP. We further sought to evaluate the performance of our proposed PLME model against the widely used JKME model, within the multivariate joint modeling framework through a simulation study mimicking a 2 × 2 $2\times 2$ crossover design. From our findings, the multivariate joint PLME model performed exceptionally well both in estimation of random-effects matrix (G) and Hessian matrix (H), allowing satisfactory model convergence during estimation. It allowed a more complex fit to the data with both random intercepts and slopes effects compared to the multivariate joint JKME model that allowed for random intercepts only. When a hierarchical viewpoint is adopted, in the sense that outcomes are specified conditionally upon random effects, the variance-covariance matrix of the random effects must be positive definite. In some cases, additional random effects could explain much variability in the data, thus improving precision in estimation of the estimands (effect size) parameters. The key highlight in this evaluation shows that multivariate joint JKME model is a powerful tool especially while fitting mixed models with random intercepts only, in crossover design settings. Addition of random slopes may lead to model complexities in most cases, resulting in unsatisfactory model convergence during estimation. To circumvent convergence pitfalls, extention of JKME model to PLME model allows a more flexible fit to the data (generated from crossover design settings), especially in the multivariate joint modeling framework.


Asunto(s)
Yodo , Modelos Estadísticos , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Cruzados , Modelos Lineales , Estudios Longitudinales , Adulto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
19.
Nutrients ; 16(6)2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542677

RESUMEN

This study examined the effect of creatine nitrate and caffeine alone and combined on exercise performance and cognitive function in resistance-trained athletes. In a double-blind, randomized crossover trial, twelve resistance-trained male athletes were supplemented with 7 days of creatine nitrate (5 g/day), caffeine (400 mg/day), and a combination of creatine nitrate and caffeine. The study involved twelve resistance-trained male athletes who initially provided a blood sample for comprehensive safety analysis, including tests for key enzymes and a lipid profile, and then performed standardized resistance exercises-bench and leg press at 70% 1RM-and a Wingate anaerobic power test. Cognitive function and cardiovascular responses were also examined forty-five minutes after supplementation. Creatine nitrate and caffeine that were co-ingested significantly enhanced cognitive function, as indicated by improved scores in the Stroop Word-Color Interference test (p = 0.04; effect size = 0.163). Co-ingestion was more effective than caffeine alone in enhancing cognitive performance. In contrast, no significant enhancements in exercise performance were observed. The co-ingestion of creatine nitrate and caffeine improved cognitive function, particularly in cognitive interference tasks, without altering short-term exercise performance. Furthermore, no adverse events were reported. Overall, the co-ingestion of creatine nitrate and caffeine appears to enhance cognition without any reported side effects for up to seven days.


Asunto(s)
Cafeína , Nitratos , Humanos , Masculino , Cafeína/farmacología , Cognición , Creatina/farmacología , Estudios Cruzados , Suplementos Dietéticos , Método Doble Ciego , Ejercicio Físico , Nitratos/farmacología
20.
Clin Transl Sci ; 17(3): e13727, 2024 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440916

RESUMEN

A single-center, phase I, partially double-blind (double-blind regarding doses of rimegepant and placebo, and open label with respect to moxifloxacin), randomized, 12-sequence, four-period crossover study of therapeutic (75 mg) and supratherapeutic (300 mg) doses of rimegepant with placebo and moxifloxacin (400 mg) controls was designed to evaluate drug effect on the Fridericia corrected QT (QTcF) interval in healthy fasted adults. A total of 38 participants were randomized and dosed in the study. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data were available from 37 participants in the rimegepant 75-mg group, 38 participants in the rimegepant 300-mg group, and 36 participants in the moxifloxacin and placebo groups. Both the 75- and 300-mg doses of rimegepant had no clinically relevant effect on ECG parameters, including QTcF, heart rate, PR and QRS interval, T-wave morphology, and U-wave presence. All upper 90% confidence intervals for the QTcF effect with rimegepant were less than or equal to 4.69 ms, well below the 10-ms threshold for potential clinical significance. Assay sensitivity was demonstrated by the QT effect of moxifloxacin. Using both by-timepoint and concentration-QTc analysis, a placebo-corrected change-from-baseline QTcF greater than 10 ms could be excluded for rimegepant plasma concentrations up to ~10,000 ng/mL, representing concentrations at least 10.8-fold the maximum observed concentration of the 75-mg therapeutic dose of rimegepant.


Asunto(s)
Electrocardiografía , Piperidinas , Piridinas , Adulto , Humanos , Estudios Cruzados , Moxifloxacino
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