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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 329: 118160, 2024 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588985

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hepatic steatosis, a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), represents a significant global health issue. Liver lipidomics has garnered increased focus recently, highlighting Traditional Chinese Medicine's (TCM) role in mitigating such conditions through lipid metabolism regulation. The Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Formula (ZGJTQGF), a longstanding TCM regimen for treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) with NAFLD, lacks a definitive mechanism for its lipid metabolism regulatory effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: This research aims to elucidate ZGJTQGF's mechanism on lipid metabolism in T2DM with NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study, utilized db/db mice to establish T2DM with NAFLD models. Evaluations included Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) and Oil Red O stainedstaining of liver tissues, alongside biochemical lipid parameter analysis. Liver lipidomics and Western blotting further substantiated the findings, systematically uncovering the mechanism of action mechanism. RESULTS: ZGJTQGF notably reduced body weight, and Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), enhancing glucose tolerance in db/db mice. HE, and Oil Red O staining, complemented by biochemical and liver lipidomics analyses, confirmed ZGJTQGF's efficacy in ameliorating liver steatosis and lipid metabolism anomalies. Lipidomics identified 1571 significantly altered lipid species in the model group, primarily through the upregulation of triglycerides (TG) and diglycerides (DG), and the downregulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Post-ZGJTQGF treatment, 496 lipid species were modulated, with increased PC and PE levels and decreased TG and DG, showcasing significant lipid metabolism improvement in T2DM with NAFLD. Moreover, ZGJTQGF's influence on lipid synthesis-related proteins was observed, underscoring its anti-steatotic impact through liver lipidomic alterations and offering novel insights into hepatic steatosis pathogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Liver lipidomics analysis combined with protein verification further demonstrated that ZGJTQGF could ameliorate the lipid disturbance of TG, DG, PC, PE in T2DM with NAFLD, as well as improve fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis and metabolism through De novo lipogenesis pathway.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Lipidómica , Hígado , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Animales , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Glucemia/efectos de los fármacos , Glucemia/metabolismo
2.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 20(7): 433-446, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570632

RESUMEN

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD), defined as co-existing diabetes and chronic kidney disease in the absence of other clear causes of kidney injury, occurs in approximately 20-40% of patients with diabetes mellitus. As the global prevalence of diabetes has increased, DKD has become highly prevalent and a leading cause of kidney failure, accelerated cardiovascular disease, premature mortality and global health care expenditure. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms contribute to DKD, and single lifestyle or pharmacological interventions have shown limited efficacy at preserving kidney function. For nearly two decades, renin-angiotensin system inhibitors were the only available kidney-protective drugs. However, several new drug classes, including sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, a non-steroidal mineralocorticoid antagonist and a selective endothelin receptor antagonist, have now been demonstrated to improve kidney outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, emerging preclinical and clinical evidence of the kidney-protective effects of glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor agonists has led to the prospective testing of these agents for DKD. Research and clinical efforts are geared towards using therapies with potentially complementary efficacy in combination to safely halt kidney disease progression. As more kidney-protective drugs become available, the outlook for people living with DKD should improve in the next few decades.


Asunto(s)
Nefropatías Diabéticas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2 , Humanos , Nefropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Nefropatías Diabéticas/etiología , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2/uso terapéutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Antagonistas de los Receptores de Endotelina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Receptor del Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón/agonistas
3.
Clin Nutr ; 43(5): 1136-1150, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593499

RESUMEN

Biological hormonal changes are frequently cited as an explanatory factor of sex and menopause differences in cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) and its associated risk factors. However, iron metabolism which varies between sexes and among women of different reproductive stages could also play a role. Recent evidence suggest that iron may contribute to CMD risk by modulating oxidative stress pathways and inflammatory responses, offering insights into the mechanistic interplay between iron and CMD development. In the current review, we provide a critical appraisal of the existing evidence on sex and menopausal differences in CMD, discuss the pitfall of current estrogen hypothesis as sole explanation, and the emerging role of iron in CMD as complementary pathway. Prior to menopause, body iron stores are lower in females as compared to males, but the increase during and after menopause, is tandem with an increased CMD risk. Importantly, basic science experiments show that an increased iron status is related to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and different cardiovascular diseases (CVD). While epidemiological studies have consistently reported associations between heme iron intake and some iron biomarkers such as ferritin and transferrin saturation with the risk of T2D, the evidence regarding their connection to CVD remains controversial. We delve into the factors contributing to this inconsistency, and the limitation of relying on observational evidence, as it does not necessarily imply causation. In conclusion, we provide recommendations for future studies on evaluating the potential role of iron in elucidating the sex and menopausal differences observed in CMD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Estrógenos , Hierro , Menopausia , Humanos , Femenino , Estrógenos/metabolismo , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Hierro/metabolismo , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo Cardiometabólico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Factores Sexuales
4.
J Psychosom Res ; 181: 111671, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657564

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Immuno-metabolic depression (IMD) is proposed to be a form of depression encompassing atypical, energy-related symptoms (AES), low-grade inflammation and metabolic dysregulations. Light therapy may alleviate AES by modulating inflammatory and metabolic pathways. We investigated whether light therapy improves clinical and biological IMD features and whether effects of light therapy on AES or depressive symptom severity are moderated by baseline IMD features. Associations between changes in symptoms and biomarkers were explored. METHODS: In secondary analyses, clinical trial data was used from 77 individuals with depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) randomized to four weeks of light therapy or placebo. AES severity and depressive symptom severity were based on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Biomarkers included 73 metabolites (Nightingale) summarized in three principal components and CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ. Linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Light therapy had no effect on AES severity, inflammatory markers and metabolite principle components versus placebo. None of these baseline features moderated the effects of light therapy on AES severity. Only a principle component reflecting metabolites implicated in glucose homeostasis moderated the effects of light therapy on depressive symptom severity (ßinteraction = 0.65, P = 0.001, FDR = 0.003). Changes in AES were not associated with changes in biomarkers. CONCLUSION: Findings do not support the efficacy of light therapy in reducing IMD features in patients with depression and T2DM. We find limited evidence that light therapy is a more beneficial depression treatment among those with more IMD features. Changes in clinical and biological IMD features did not align over four-weeks' time. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Netherlands Trial Register (NTR) NTR4942.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fototerapia , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fototerapia/métodos , Depresión/terapia , Depresión/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangre , Anciano , Adulto , Inflamación , Resultado del Tratamiento , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
5.
Chem Biodivers ; 21(6): e202301858, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608202

RESUMEN

Limeum indicum has been widely utilized in traditional medicine but no experimental work has been done on this herb. The primary objective of this study was to conduct a phytochemical analysis and assess the multifunctional capabilities of aforementioned plant in dual therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D). The phytochemical screening of ethanol, methanol extract, and their derived fractions of Limeum indicum was conducted using GC-MS, HPLC, UV-analysis and FTIR. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH method. The inhibitory potential of the extracts/fractions against α-, ß-glucosidase acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and monoaminine oxidases (MAO-A & B) was evaluated. Results revealed that acetonitrile fraction has highest inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase (IC50=68.47±0.05 µg/mL), methanol extract against ß-glucosidase (IC50=91.12±0.07 µg/mL), ethyl acetate fraction against AChE (IC50=59.0±0.02 µg/mL), ethanol extract against BChE (28.41±0.01 µg/mL), n-hexane fraction against MAO-A (IC50=150.5±0.31 µg/mL) and methanol extract for MAO-B (IC50=75.95±0.13 µg/mL). The docking analysis of extracts\fractions suggested the best binding scores within the active pocket of the respective enzymes. During the in-vivo investigation, ethanol extract produced hypoglycemic effect (134.52±2.79 and 119.38±1.40 mg/dl) after 21 days treatment at dose level of 250 and 500 mg/Kg. Histopathological findings further supported the in-vivo studies.


Asunto(s)
Acetilcolinesterasa , Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Butirilcolinesterasa , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Hipoglucemiantes , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Monoaminooxidasa , Fitoquímicos , Extractos Vegetales , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animales , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Acetilcolinesterasa/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterasa/metabolismo , Hipoglucemiantes/química , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Hipoglucemiantes/aislamiento & purificación , Monoaminooxidasa/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/química , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/farmacología , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Masculino , alfa-Glucosidasas/metabolismo , Ratas , beta-Glucosidasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , beta-Glucosidasa/metabolismo , Humanos
6.
Clin Ther ; 46(5): 404-410, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594107

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: L-carnitine supplementation has been recommended to improve cardiometabolic health markers in diabetic patients. Our purpose was to assess the dose-dependent effects of l-carnitine supplementation on cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched until May 2022 for randomized controlled trials that examined the impact of l-carnitine supplementation on cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes. The mean difference (MD) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated utilizing a random-effects model. Nonlinear dose-response associations were modeled with restricted cubic splines. The certainty of evidence was rated using the GRADE approach. FINDINGS: Twenty-one randomized trials with 2041 patients with type 2 diabetes were included. We found that every 1 g/d supplementation with l-carnitine significantly reduced body mass index (MD: -0.37 kg/m2, 95% CI: -0.59, -0.15; I2 =93%, n=13, GRADE=low), HbA1c (MD: -0.16%, 95% CI: -0.32, -0.01; I2 = 94%, n = 18, GRADE = moderate), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD: -0.11 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.16, -0.05; I2 = 91%, n = 11, GRADE = high). There were also reductions in serum triglycerides (MD: 0.07 mmol/L), total cholesterol (MD: -0.13 mmol/L), and fasting plasma glucose (MD: -0.17 mmol/L). A U-shaped effect was demonstrated for body mass index, with the largest reduction at 2 g/d. A linear reduction was seen for serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose up to l-carnitine supplementation of 4 g/d. IMPLICATIONS: L-carnitine supplementation resulted in a small reduction in serum lipids and plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, due to high statistical heterogeneity, the results should be interpreted very cautiously.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia , Carnitina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Suplementos Dietéticos , Control Glucémico , Pérdida de Peso , Humanos , Glucemia/efectos de los fármacos , Glucemia/metabolismo , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Carnitina/administración & dosificación , Carnitina/uso terapéutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Hemoglobina Glucada/metabolismo , Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiaca , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Pérdida de Peso/efectos de los fármacos
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1284799, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586459

RESUMEN

Background: Psychosocial status and patient reported outcomes (PRO) [depression and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL)] are major health determinants. We investigated the association between depression and clinical outcomes in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), adjusted for PRO. Methods: Using prospective data from Hong Kong Diabetes Register (2013-2019), we estimated the hazard-ratio (HR, 95%CI) of depression (validated Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) score≥7) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), chronic kidney disease (CKD: eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73m2) and all-cause mortality in 4525 Chinese patients with T2D adjusted for patient characteristics, renal function, medications, self-care and HRQoL domains (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression measured by EQ-5D-3L) in linear-regression models. Results: In this cohort without prior events [mean ± SD age:55.7 ± 10.6, 43.7% women, median (IQR) disease duration of 7.0 (2.0-13.0) years, HbA1c, 7.2% (6.6%-8.20%), 26.4% insulin-treated], 537(11.9%) patients had depressive symptoms and 1923 (42.5%) patients had some problems with HRQoL at baseline. After 5.6(IQR: 4.4-6.2) years, 141 patients (3.1%) died, 533(11.8%) developed CKD and 164(3.6%) developed CVD. In a fully-adjusted model (model 4) including self-care and HRQoL, the aHR of depression was 1.99 (95% confidence interval CI):1.25-3.18) for CVD, 2.29 (1.25-4.21) for IHD. Depression was associated with all-cause mortality in models 1-3 adjusted for demographics, clinical characteristics and self-care, but was attenuated after adjusting for HRQoL (model 4- 1.54; 95%CI: 0.91-2.60), though HR still indicated same direction with important magnitude. Patients who reported having regular exercise (3-4 times per week) had reduced aHR of CKD [0.61 (0.41-0.89)]. Item 4 of PHQ-9 (feeling tired, little energy) was independently associated with all-cause mortality with aHR of 1.66 (1.30-2.12). Conclusion: Depression exhibits significant association with CVD, IHD, and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes, adjusting for their HRQoL and health behaviors. Despite the association between depression and all-cause mortality attenuated after adjusting for HRQoL, the effect size remains substantial. The feeling of tiredness or having little energy, as assessed by item Q4 of the PHQ-9 questionnaire, was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality after covariate adjustments. Our findings emphasize the importance of incorporating psychiatric evaluations into holistic diabetes management.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Depresión/complicaciones , Depresión/epidemiología , Riñón , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente
8.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 146, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575930

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: According to traditional medicine, Melissa officinalis L., (lemon balm) has been known to remove harmful substances from the blood and is considered a cardiac tonic. Therefore, its use as a cardiovascular remedy may explain the lipid-lowering effects of lemon balm. Dyslipidemia can be considered as a significant preventable risk factor for atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. The present study is the first meta-analysis to investigate the effects of M. officinalis administration on serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC). METHODS: From inception to October 2023, a thorough search through literature was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. The inclusion criteria of this study were randomized controlled trials, with or without blinding which provided adequate data for each group at the beginning and end of the follow-up period. Meta-analysis was performed on randomized controlled trials using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) V4 software. Risk of bias in the selected studies was examined according to the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials. Begg's funnel plot symmetry status, Begg's rank correlation, and Egger's weighted regression tests were employed to evaluate potential publication bias. RESULTS: The meta-analysis comprised of 5 randomized controlled trials with a total of 302 patients. The findings of the meta-analysis indicated that the consumption of lemon balm had a significant decrease in TG (SMD (95% CI): -0.396(-0.620, -0.173), p-value = 0.001), TC (SMD (95% CI): -0.416 (-0.641, -0.192), p-value < 0.001) and LDL (SMD (95% CI): -0.23(-0.45, -0.008), p < 0.05) levels compared to the placebo group. While it had no statistically significant effect on HDL level (SMD (95% CI): 0.336(-0.091, 0.767), p-value = 0.123). No significant and detectable publication bias was found in the meta-analysis. Additionally, all included clinical studies demonstrated a low risk of bias for missing outcome data and selection of the reported results. The robustness of the results was demonstrated by a sensitivity analysis using the one-study remove method. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this meta-analysis provide evidence that lemon balm may be administered as a safe and beneficial herbal medicine for reducing TC, TG and LDL levels. According to the pooled results of 5 studies with a total of 302 patients, lemon balm intake had no significant effect on HDL level. This study reinforces the notion that lemon balm may have a substantial impact on serum lipid profile as a potential remedy in cases of dyslipidemia. The main concern of our research is the limited number of eligible studies and the relatively small population size of each individual study. The patients of these studies had different types of diseases and metabolic syndromes. However, the meta-analysis was sufficiently powered to detect the considerable effects of lemon balm in the combined population regardless of type of diseases.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dislipidemias , Melissa , Humanos , Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Triglicéridos
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(4): 1102-1112, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621917

RESUMEN

This study systematically combed the randomized controlled trial(RCT) of Chinese patent medicines in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) in recent five years by using the method of evidence map. It understood the distribution and quality of evidence in this field and found the existing Chinese patent medicines in treatment of T2DM and the problems in its research. The study collected the commonly used Chinese patent medicines for the treatment of T2DM from three drug catalogs, retrieved Chinese and English databases to obtain RCT literature related to Chinese patent medicines in recent five years, and extracted information such as sample size, study drug, combination medication, course of treatment, and outcome indicators from the literature. It also conducted quality evaluation based on the Cochrane collaborative network bias risk assessment tool and used charts to display the analysis results. A total of 19 kinds of Chinese patent medicines are collected, of which 13 kinds of Chinese patent medicines are mentioned in 131 articles related to RCT. The literature concerning Shenqi Jiangtang Capsules/Granules, Jinlida Granules, and Xiaoke Pills accounts for a large proportion. Outcome indicators include blood glucose, blood lipids, pancreatic islet cell function, and clinical symptoms. In terms of literature quality, 75 articles have correct random methods, and 1 article performs allocation hiding and blind methods. Therefore, the clinical orientation of Chinese patent medicines for the treatment of T2DM is broad, failing to reflect their own characteristics and lacking safety information. Insufficient attention has been paid to TCM syndrome scores, quality of life, and blood lipid outcome indicators that reflect the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). The number of studies on the treatment of T2DM by Chinese patent medicines varies greatly among varieties, and the quality of the studies is low. It is suggested that the holders of the marketing license of T2DM Chinese patent medicines should carry out a post-marketing re-evaluation of the varieties of traditional Chinese patent medicines for treating T2DM according to the relevant requirements of the State Food and Drug Administration, standardize the clinical positioning, and revise and improve the safety information in the instructions. It is recommended that researchers construct a core indicator dataset for Chinese patent medicine treatment of T2DM, improve the efficacy evaluation system, and develop an experimental plan based on CONSORT before conducting RCT.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/efectos adversos , Medicina Tradicional China , Medicamentos sin Prescripción/uso terapéutico , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
10.
J Nutr ; 154(4): 1333-1346, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582698

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The increase in circulating insulin levels is associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the levels of branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) are altered in T2D, but whether AAAs play a role in insulin secretion and signaling remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effects of different AAAs on pancreatic function and on the use of insulin in finishing pigs. METHODS: A total of 18 healthy finishing pigs (Large White) with average body weight of 100 ± 1.15 kg were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments: Con, a normal diet supplemented with 0.68% alanine; Phe, a normal diet supplemented with 1.26% phenylalanine; and Trp, a normal diet supplemented with 0.78% tryptophan. The 3 diets were isonitrogenous. There were 6 replicates in each group. RESULTS: Herein, we investigated the effects of tryptophan and phenylalanine on pancreatic function and the use of insulin in finishing pigs and found that the addition of tryptophan and phenylalanine aggravated pancreatic fat deposition, increased the relative content of saturated fatty acids, especially palmitate (C16:0) and stearate (C18:0), and the resulting lipid toxicity disrupted pancreatic secretory function. We also found that tryptophan and phenylalanine inhibited the growth and secretion of ß-cells, downregulated the gene expression of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the pancreas and liver, and reduced glucose utilization in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: Using fattening pigs as a model, multiorgan combined analysis of the insulin-secreting organ pancreas and the main insulin-acting organ liver, excessive intake of tryptophan and phenylalanine will aggravate pancreatic damage leading to glucose metabolism disorders, providing new evidence for the occurrence and development of T2D.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Triptófano , Porcinos , Animales , Fenilalanina , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas , Dieta , Insulina , Alimentación Animal/análisis
11.
J Med Food ; 27(4): 279-286, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603555

RESUMEN

Amaranth is a pseudocereal rich in macronutrients and micronutrients, with about 60 species cultivated worldwide. It is a high nutritional value food because of its many essential amino acids. Recent investigations demonstrate that the phytochemicals and extracts of amaranth have beneficial effects on health, including antidiabetic potential, a decrease in plasmatic cholesterol and blood pressure, and protection from oxidative stress and inflammation. Nowadays, type 2 diabetes has increased worldwide, becoming a problem of public health that makes it necessary to look for alternative strategies for its prevention and treatment. This review aims to summarize the antidiabetic potential of diverse species of the Amaranth genus. A bibliographical review was updated on the plant's therapeutic potential, including stem, leaves, and seeds, to know the benefits and potential as an adjuvant in treating and managing diabetes and associated pathologies (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and heart disease). This analysis contributes to the generation of knowledge about the therapeutic effects of amaranth, promoting the creation of new products, and the opportunity to conduct clinical trials to assess their safety and efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Amaranthus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Semillas/química , Amaranthus/química , Micronutrientes
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612872

RESUMEN

Recently, studies have reported a correlation that individuals with diabetes show an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mulberry leaves, serving as both a traditional medicinal herb and a food source, exhibit significant hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. The flavonoid compounds in mulberry leaf offer therapeutic effects for relieving diabetic symptoms and providing neuroprotection. However, the mechanisms of this effect have not been fully elucidated. This investigation aimed to investigate the combined effects of specific mulberry leaf flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, rhamnocitrin, tetramethoxyluteolin, and norartocarpetin) on both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and AD. Additionally, the role of the gut microbiota in these two diseases' treatment was studied. Using network pharmacology, we investigated the potential mechanisms of flavonoids in mulberry leaves, combined with gut microbiota, in combating AD and T2DM. In addition, we identified protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a key target for kaempferol in these two diseases. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations showed that kaempferol has the potential to inhibit PTP1B for indirect treatment of AD, which was proven by measuring the IC50 of kaempferol (279.23 µM). The cell experiment also confirmed the dose-dependent effect of kaempferol on the phosphorylation of total cellular protein in HepG2 cells. This research supports the concept of food-medicine homology and broadens the range of medical treatments for diabetes and AD, highlighting the prospect of integrating traditional herbal remedies with modern medical research.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Morus , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Quempferoles , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Farmacología en Red , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/tratamiento farmacológico , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Frutas , Flavonoides
13.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 40(4): e3801, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616511

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have shown that diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) has been on the rise, with most patients presenting with severe and progressive symptoms. Currently, most of the available prediction models for DPN are derived from general clinical information and laboratory indicators. Several Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) indicators have been utilised to construct prediction models. In this study, we established a novel machine learning-based multi-featured Chinese-Western medicine-integrated prediction model for DPN using clinical features of TCM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical data of 1581 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated at the Department of Endocrinology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of Chinese Medicine were collected. The data (including general information, laboratory parameters and TCM features) of 1142 patients with T2DM were selected after data cleaning. After baseline description analysis of the variables, the data were divided into training and validation sets. Four prediction models were established and their performance was evaluated using validation sets. Meanwhile, the accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score and area under the curve (AUC) of ROC were calculated using ten-fold cross-validation to further assess the performance of the models. An explanatory analysis of the results of the DPN prediction model was carried out using the SHAP framework based on machine learning-based prediction models. RESULTS: Of the 1142 patients with T2DM, 681 had a comorbidity of DPN, while 461 did not. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, cause of disease, systolic pressure, HbA1c, ALT, RBC, Cr, BUN, red blood cells in the urine, glucose in the urine, and protein in the urine (p < 0.05). T2DM patients with a comorbidity of DPN exhibited diverse TCM symptoms, including limb numbness, limb pain, hypodynamia, thirst with desire for drinks, dry mouth and throat, blurred vision, gloomy complexion, and unsmooth pulse, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Our results showed that the proposed multi-featured Chinese-Western medicine-integrated prediction model was superior to conventional models without characteristic TCM indicators. The model showed the best performance (accuracy = 0.8109, precision = 0.8029, recall = 0.9060, F1 score = 0.8511, and AUC = 0.9002). SHAP analysis revealed that the dominant risk factors that caused DPN were TCM symptoms (limb numbness, thirst with desire for drinks, blurred vision), age, cause of disease, and glycosylated haemoglobin. These risk factors were exerted positive effects on the DPN prediction models. CONCLUSIONS: A multi-feature, Chinese-Western medicine-integrated prediction model for DPN was established and validated. The model improves early-stage identification of high-risk groups for DPN in the diagnosis and treatment of T2DM, while also providing informative support for the intelligent management of chronic conditions such as diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neuropatías Diabéticas , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Neuropatías Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatías Diabéticas/epidemiología , Neuropatías Diabéticas/etiología , Hipoestesia , Medicina Tradicional China , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Nutr Diabetes ; 14(1): 22, 2024 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649347

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of folate have been observed under different conditions, but the available evidence on inflammation and reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is limited. The study aimed to explore the effects of folate on inflammation and homocysteine amongst individuals with T2DM. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library were used to search for evidence. A random-effect model meta-analysis through Review Manager (version 5.4) and metaHun was performed. Results were reported as standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals graphically using forest and funnel plots. RESULTS: Data from 9 trials with 426 patients living with T2DM were analyzed. Folic acid supplementation significantly revealed a large effect size on homocysteine levels compared to placebo, SMD = -1.53, 95%CI (-2.14,-0.93), p < 0.05. Additionally, we observed a medium marginal effect size on C-reactive protein (SMD = -0.68, 95%CI (-1.34, -0.01), p = 0.05). However, no significant effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (SMD = -0.86, 95%CI (-2.65, 0.93), p = 0.34), and interleukin-6 (SMD = -0.04, 95%CI (-1.08, 1.01), p = 0.95) was observed. CONCLUSION: Evidence analyzed in this study suggests that folic acid supplementation in T2DM reduces homocysteine and may mitigate CVDs. However, its effect on inflammation is inconclusive.


Asunto(s)
Proteína C-Reactiva , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácido Fólico , Homocisteína , Inflamación , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Humanos , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Proteína C-Reactiva/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Ácido Fólico/uso terapéutico , Ácido Fólico/administración & dosificación , Homocisteína/sangre , Inflamación/sangre , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Interleucina-6/sangre , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/sangre
15.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 160, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622669

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Morocco faces a substantial public health challenge due to diabetes mellitus, affecting 12.4% of adults in 2023. The Moroccan population makes extensive use of phytotherapy and traditional medicine to address the difficulties this chronic condition poses. The aim of this study is to document the use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine for managing type 2 diabetes in the provinces of the Casablanca-Settat region. METHODS: The study employed a semi-structured questionnaire for data collection. A study was conducted between August 1st and September 30th, 2023, and 244 individuals diagnosed with diabetes were invited to take part in the research, all of whom used at least one medicinal plant to manage type 2 diabetes, by visiting primary healthcare facilities in Morocco. The analysis included the use of Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) to scrutinize the data. RESULTS: A total of 47 plant species belonging to 25 families were documented. Notably, the Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Fabaceae families were frequently mentioned in the context of treating type 2 diabetes in Morocco. Prominent among the cited plant species were Sesamum indicum L., Lepidium sativum L., followed by Foeniculum vulgare Mill., and Rosmarinus officinalis L. Seeds emerged as the plant part most commonly mentioned, with infusion being the prevailing preparation method and oral consumption being the most frequently depicted method of administration. CONCLUSION: This research underscores the practicality of incorporating traditional medicine into the healthcare framework of the Casablanca-Settat region. The findings not only offer valuable documentation but also have a vital function in safeguarding knowledge regarding the utilization of medicinal plants in this locality. Moreover, they provide opportunities to delve deeper into the phytochemical and pharmacological potential of these plants.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Plantas Medicinales , Adulto , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Marruecos , Etnobotánica/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301805, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625905

RESUMEN

AIMS: A new approach to a healthy diet is the assessment of dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC). The aim of this study was to assess the dietary TAC among Moroccan Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients and identify the main food sources contributing to the total antioxidant capacity intake. METHODS: A total of 254 patients with T2DM was included in the study. The usual dietary intakes were assessed by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire. The dietary TAC was estimated using published databases of the antioxidant content of foods measured by the FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant potential) method. RESULTS: The mean (SD) dietary TAC of the studied type 2 diabetes patients was 10.86 (3.42) mmol/day. Correlation analyses showed a positive association between dietary TAC and the consumption of healthy food groups, such as fruits and vegetables. Tea and coffee beverages (38.6%), vegetables (21.9%), cereals and pulses (18.8%), fruits and fruit juices (12.4%) were major food sources of dietary antioxidant intake. The relatively short list of twenty food items that contributed most to dietary TAC presented an important explanation of roughly 94%. These included tea, coffee, broad beans, artichoke, pepper, beetroot, sweet potatoes, pomegranate, mandarin, figs, strawberry, orange juice, olives, cashew nuts, almonds, sunflower seeds, dchicha and white beans. CONCLUSIONS: This study supplies baseline dietary TAC data for Moroccan T2DM patients that may help to elucidate which aspects of the eating habits and behaviours require improvement and provide the opportunity to develop dietary guidelines as part of the nutritional diabetes management.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Antioxidantes/análisis , Café , Dieta , Verduras , Frutas/química ,
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301621, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630691

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus adversely affects the contractile ability of the small intestine. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating the impact of garlic oil on small intestinal motility. This study aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of garlic oil on type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Thirty-six adult female Wistar rats (n = 36) were divided into four groups: control, non-diabetic rats supplemented with garlic oil, diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with garlic oil. The rats were anesthetized using pentobarbitone (40 mg/kg BW); various motility parameters and oxidative markers were determined in small intestinal segments. Measurements were taken for naso-anal length, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose level (FBG), and plasma insulin level. Compared to the control group, the diabetic rats exhibited a reduction in the average force of contraction and motility index in all small intestinal segments. Furthermore, the rats exhibited a reduction in the average duration of muscle contraction only in the jejunum. The rats also exhibited hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, significant oxidative stress, and obesity. This was proven by changes in motility parameters, fasting blood glucose levels, HOMA-IR values, intestinal MDA levels, and waist circumference. The non-diabetic rats supplemented with garlic oil also exhibited a decrease in the average force of contraction and motility index in all small intestinal segments, despite having consistently higher Lee index and waist circumference values. However, the diabetic rats treated with garlic oil demonstrated improved small intestinal motility in nearly all small intestinal segments and a reduction in oxidative stress. In conclusion, rats with diabetes mellitus experienced a decrease in small intestinal motility, which is primarily driven by oxidative stress. Normal rats administered with garlic oil supplements exhibited similar effects. In contrast, garlic oil treatment in diabetic rats led to enhanced small intestinal motility and a notable anti-hyperglycemic effect, which can be attributed to the potent antioxidant properties of garlic oil.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Alílicos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Ajo , Sulfuros , Ratas , Femenino , Animales , Ratas Wistar , Glucemia , Estrés Oxidativo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612462

RESUMEN

An increase in the level of nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in regulating the human cardiovascular system (lowering blood pressure, improving blood flow), glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, and may help enhance exercise capacity in healthy individuals (including athletes). This molecule is formed by endogenous enzymatic synthesis and the intake of inorganic nitrate (NO3-) from dietary sources. Although one of the most well-known natural sources of NO3- in the daily diet is beetroot (Beta vulgaris), this review also explores other plant sources of NO3- with comparable concentrations that could serve as ergogenic aids, supporting exercise performance or recovery in healthy individuals. The results of the analysis demonstrate that red spinach (Amaranthus spp.) and green spinach (Spinacia oleracea) are alternative natural sources rich in dietary NO3-. The outcomes of the collected studies showed that consumption of selected alternative sources of inorganic NO3- could support physical condition. Red spinach and green spinach have been shown to improve exercise performance or accelerate recovery after physical exertion in healthy subjects (including athletes).


Asunto(s)
Celosia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nitratos , Humanos , Nitratos/farmacología , Ejercicio Físico , Control Glucémico , Óxido Nítrico , Suplementos Dietéticos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612580

RESUMEN

An organism's ability to function properly depends not solely on its diet but also on the intake of nutrients and non-nutritive bioactive compounds that exert immunomodulatory effects. This principle applies both to healthy individuals and, in particular, to those with concomitant chronic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes. However, the current food industry and the widespread use of highly processed foods often lead to nutritional deficiencies. Numerous studies have confirmed the occurrence of immune system dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. This article elucidates the impact of specific nutrients on the immune system function, which maintains homeostasis of the organism, with a particular emphasis on type 2 diabetes. The role of macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins, and selected substances, such as omega-3 fatty acids, coenzyme Q10, and alpha-lipoic acid, was taken into consideration, which outlined the minimum range of tests that ought to be performed on patients in order to either directly or indirectly determine the severity of malnutrition in this group of patients.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Desnutrición , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Estado Nutricional , Nutrientes , Inmunomodulación
20.
Nutr Diabetes ; 14(1): 14, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589346

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the effect of curcumin and eicosapentaenoic acid, as one the main components of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on anthropometric, glucose homeostasis, and gene expression markers of cardio-metabolic risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This clinical trial was conducted at the Endocrinology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital in Tabriz. It aimed to determine the impact of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA), and curcumin supplements on various health indicators in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) from 2021.02.01 to 2022.02.01. The study was a randomized double-blinded clinical trial and conducted over 12 weeks with 100 participants randomly divided into four groups. Stratified randomization was used to assign participants to two months of supplementation based on sex and Body Mass Index (BMI). The study comprised four groups: Group 1 received 2 capsules of 500 mg EPA and 200 mg DHA, along with 1 nano-curcumin placebo; Group 2 received 1 capsule of 80 mg nano-curcumin and 2 omega 3 Fatty Acids placebos; Group 3 received 2 capsules of 500 mg EPA and 200 mg DHA, and 1 capsule of 80 mg nano-curcumin; Group 4, the control, received 2 omega 3 Fatty Acids placebos and 1 nano-curcumin placebo. RESULTS: After twelve weeks of taking EPA + Nano-curcumin supplements, the patients experienced a statistically significant reduction in insulin levels in their blood [MD: -1.44 (-2.70, -0.17)]. This decrease was significantly greater than the changes observed in the placebo group [MD: -0.63 (-1.97, 0.69)]. The EPA + Nano-curcumin group also showed a significant decrease in High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) levels compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the EPA + Nano-curcumin group had a significant increase in Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) levels compared to the placebo group (p < 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index, Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI), or Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C) levels between the four groups (all p > 0.05). There were significant differences between the Nano-curcumin and EPA groups [MD: -17.02 (-32.99, -1.05)], and between the Nano-curcumin and control groups [MD: -20.76 (-36.73, -4.79)] in terms of lowering the serum cholesterol level. The difference in Triglycerides (TG) serum levels between the EPA + Nano-curcumin and placebo groups were not statistically significant (p = 0.093). The Nano-curcumin group showed significant decreases in Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) levels compared to the EPA group [MD: -20.12 (-36.90, -3.34)] and the control group [MD: -20.79 (-37.57, -4.01)]. There was a near-to-significant difference in High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) serum levels between the EPA + Nano-curcumin and EPA groups (p = 0.056). Finally, there were significant differences in the decrease of serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) levels between the EPA and Nano-curcumin groups [MD: -127.50 (-247.91, -7.09)], the EPA and placebo groups [MD: 126.25 (5.83, 246.66)], the EPA + Nano-curcumin and Nano-curcumin groups [MD: -122.76 (-243.17, -2.35)], and the EPA + Nano- curcumin and placebo groups [MD: 121.50 (1.09, 241.92)]. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study suggest that 12-week supplementation with EPA and Nano-curcumin may positively impact inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic parameters in patients with diabetes. The supplementation of EPA and Nano-curcumin may be a potential intervention to manage diabetes and reduce the risk of complications associated with diabetes. However, further research is needed to validate the study's findings and establish the long-term effects of EPA and Nano-curcumin supplementation in patients with diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Curcumina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Humanos , Curcumina/uso terapéutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/uso terapéutico , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/uso terapéutico , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular , Masculino , Femenino
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