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J Surg Res ; 259: 562-568, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261858


BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux and Barrett's esophagus are significant risk factors for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Group IIa secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) catalyzes the production of various proinflammatory metabolites and plays a critical role in promoting reflux-induced inflammatory changes within the distal esophagus. We hypothesized that inhibition of sPLA2 in human Barrett's cells would attenuate adhesion molecule expression via decreased activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and decrease cell proliferation, possibly mitigating the invasive potential of Barrett's esophagus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Normal human esophageal epithelial cells (HET1A) and Barrett's cells (CPB) were assayed for baseline sPLA2 expression. CPB cells were treated with a specific inhibitor of sPLA2 followed by tumor necrosis factor-α. Protein expression was evaluated using immunoblotting. Cell proliferation was assessed using an MTS cell proliferation assay kit. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test or analysis of variance, where appropriate. RESULTS: CPB cells demonstrated higher baseline sPLA2 expression than HET1A cells (P = 0.0005). Treatment with 30 µM sPLA2 inhibitor significantly attenuated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (P = 0.004) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (P < 0.0001) expression as well as decreased NF-κB activation (P = 0.002). sPLA2 inhibition decreased cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.001 for 15, 20, and 30 µM doses). CONCLUSIONS: sPLA2 inhibition in human Barrett's cells decreases cellular adhesive properties and NF-κB activation as well as decreases cell proliferation, signifying downregulation of the inflammatory response and possible attenuation of cellular malignant potential. These findings identify sPLA2 inhibition as a potential chemopreventive target for premalignant lesions of the esophagus.

Esófago de Barrett/patología , Esófago/patología , Fosfolipasas A2 Grupo II/antagonistas & inhibidores , Ácidos Pentanoicos/farmacología , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Adenocarcinoma/prevención & control , Esófago de Barrett/tratamiento farmacológico , Adhesión Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Neoplasias Esofágicas/prevención & control , Esófago/citología , Fosfolipasas A2 Grupo II/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácidos Pentanoicos/uso terapéutico
J Surg Res ; 230: 101-109, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100024


BACKGROUND: Calcific aortic stenosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Proinflammatory stimulation via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) causes the aortic valve interstitial cell (AVIC) to undergo phenotypic change. The AVIC first assumes an inflammatory phenotype characterized by the production of inflammatory mediators such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). This change has been linked with an osteogenic phenotypic response. Statins have recently been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. We therefore hypothesized that statins may have an anti-inflammatory effect on human AVICs by downregulation of TLR4-stimulated inflammatory responses. Our purposes were (1) to determine the effect of simvastatin on TLR4-induced expression of inflammatory mediators in human AVICs and (2) to determine the mechanism(s) through which simvastatin exert this effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human AVICs were isolated from the explanted hearts of four patients undergoing cardiac transplantation. Cells were treated with simvastatin (50 µM) for 1 h before stimulation with TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.2 µg/mL). Immunoblotting (IB) was used to analyze cell lysates for ICAM-1 expression, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect IL-8 and MCP-1 in cell culture media. Likewise, lysates were analyzed for TLR4 and nuclear factor-kappa B activation (IB). After simvastatin treatment, lysates were analyzed for TLR4 levels (IB). Statistics were by analysis of variance (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Simvastatin reduced TLR4-induced ICAM-1, IL-8, and MCP-1 expression in AVICs. Simvastatin down-regulated TLR4 levels and suppressed TLR4-induced phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the potential of a medical therapy (simvastatin) to impact the pathogenesis of aortic stenosis.

Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica/tratamiento farmacológico , Válvula Aórtica/patología , Calcinosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/farmacología , Simvastatina/farmacología , Receptor Toll-Like 4/inmunología , Adulto , Válvula Aórtica/citología , Válvula Aórtica/inmunología , Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica/inmunología , Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica/patología , Calcinosis/inmunología , Calcinosis/patología , Cardiomiopatía Dilatada/cirugía , Células Cultivadas , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Trasplante de Corazón , Humanos , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Miofibroblastos , Cultivo Primario de Células , Simvastatina/uso terapéutico
J Surg Res ; 195(1): 21-8, 2015 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25655994


BACKGROUND: Paraplegia secondary to spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a devastating complication of thoracoabdominal aortic intervention. The complex interactions between injured neurons and activated leukocytes have limited the understanding of neuron-specific injury. We hypothesize that spinal cord neuron cell cultures subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) would simulate ischemia-reperfusion injury, which could be attenuated by specific alpha-2a agonism in an Akt-dependent fashion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spinal cords from perinatal mice were harvested, and neurons cultured in vitro for 7-10 d. Cells were pretreated with 1 µM dexmedetomidine (Dex) and subjected to OGD in an anoxic chamber. Viability was determined by MTT assay. Deoxyuridine-triphosphate nick-end labeling staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used for apoptosis and necrosis identification, respectively. Western blot was used for protein analysis. RESULTS: Vehicle control cells were only 59% viable after 1 h of OGD. Pretreatment with Dex significantly preserves neuronal viability with 88% viable (P < 0.05). Dex significantly decreased apoptotic cells compared with that of vehicle control cells by 50% (P < 0.05). Necrosis was not significantly different between treatment groups. Mechanistically, Dex treatment significantly increased phosphorylated Akt (P < 0.05), but protective effects of Dex were eliminated by an alpha-2a antagonist or Akt inhibitor (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Using a novel spinal cord neuron cell culture, OGD mimics neuronal metabolic derangement responsible for paraplegia after aortic surgery. Dex preserves neuronal viability and decreases apoptosis in an Akt-dependent fashion. Dex demonstrates clinical promise for reducing the risk of paraplegia after high-risk aortic surgery.

Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/uso terapéutico , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Cardiovasculares/efectos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapéutico , Daño por Reperfusión/prevención & control , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/prevención & control , Animales , Apoptosis , Supervivencia Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Glucosa/deficiencia , Hipoxia , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Médula Espinal/citología , Médula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/etiología