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1.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677851

RESUMEN

Wedelia chinensis is a folk medicine used in many Asian countries to treat various ailments. Earlier investigations reported that the petroleum ether extract of the plant has potential biological activity, but the compounds responsible for activity are not yet completely known. Therefore, the current work was designed to isolate and characterize the compounds from the petroleum ether extract and to study their bioactivities. Four compounds including two diterepenes (-) kaur-16α-hydroxy-19-oic acid (1) and (-) kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (2), and two steroids ß-sitosterol (3), and cholesta-5,23-dien-3-ol (4) were isolated and characterized. Among the compounds, the diterpenes were found to have more biological activities than the steroidal compounds. Compound 1 showed the highest cytotoxicity with LC50 of 12.42 ± 0.87 µg/mL. Likewise, it possesses good antioxidant activity in terms of reducing power. On the contrary, compound 2 exerted the highest antiacetylcholinesterase and antibutyrylcholinesterase activity. Both the diterpenes showed almost similar antibacterial and antifungal activity. The identification of diterpenoid and steroid compounds with multifunctional activities suggests that W. chinensis may serve as an important source of bioactive compounds which should be further investigated in animal model for therapeutic potential in the treatment of different chronic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Diterpenos , Wedelia , Animales , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antibacterianos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9154406, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805409

RESUMEN

Mistletoes are considered to be the potential medicinal herbs due to their rich traditional uses. Loranthus globosus is a Bangladeshi mango mistletoe that has been reported as folk medicine for various ailments and diseases. In an attempt to explore its effectiveness in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of L. globosus. We report that the crude methanol extract (CME) of the plant contains a good amount of polyphenolics and possesses antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Fractionation of CME with solvents of varying polarity revealed the highest activity and polyphenolic content in the ethylacetate fraction (EAF). Correlation analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.05) association of polyphenolics with the antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory properties. Using column chromatography with diaion resin, the polyphenolics (EAF-PP) were isolated from the EAF that displayed the potent antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activities. Kinetic analysis showed that EAF-PP exhibited a competitive type of inhibition. A total of thirty-six compounds including catechin and its different derivatives were identified in the EAF-PP by LC/MS analysis. Bioactivity-guided separation approach afforded the isolation of the two major active compounds catechin and catechin dimer from the EAF-PP. Hence, EAF-PP represents a potential source of antioxidants and cholinesterase inhibitors, which can be used in the management of AD.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/aislamiento & purificación , Loranthaceae/química , Plantas Medicinales/química , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Bangladesh , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/farmacología , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Ratones , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Fitoterapia , Polifenoles/farmacología
3.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 204, 2021 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315449

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Wedelia chinensis has been reported as a folk medicine for the treatment of different diseases including neurodegenerative disease. Although the plant has been studied well for diverse biological activities, the effect of this plant in neurological disorder is largely unknown. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of W. chinensis. METHODS: The extract and fractions of the plant were evaluated for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by modified Ellman method. The antioxidant activity was assessed in several in vitro models/assays such as reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, scavenging of 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and hydroxyl radical, and inhibition of brain lipid peroxidation. Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods were used to isolate and identify the active compound from the extract. RESULTS: Among the fractions, aqueous fraction (AQF) and ethylacetate fraction (EAF) exhibited high inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (IC50: 40.02 ± 0.16 µg/ml and 57.76 ± 0.37 µg/ml) and butyrylcholinesterase (IC50: 31.79 ± 0.18 µg/ml and 48.41 ± 0.05 µg/ml). Similarly, the EAF and AQF had high content of phenolics and flavonoids and possess strong antioxidant activity in several antioxidant assays including DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant activity. They effectively inhibited the peroxidation of brain lipid in vitro with IC50 values of 45.20 ± 0.10 µg/ml and 25.53 ± 0.04 µg/ml, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between total flavonoids and antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Activity guided chromatographic separation led to the isolation of a major active compound from the EAF and its structure was elucidated as apigenin by spectral analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The potential ability of W. chinensis to inhibit the cholinesterase activity and peroxidation of lipids suggest that the plant might be useful for the management of AD.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Apigenina/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/farmacología , Wedelia , Apigenina/farmacología , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Fotoquímica , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
4.
Adv Pharmacol Pharm Sci ; 2021: 5569054, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855299

RESUMEN

Vanda roxburghii has been used in traditional medicine to treat nervous system disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported earlier a high acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activity in the chloroform fraction of this plant. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the compounds with acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities from the chloroform fraction of Vanda roxburghii. Phytochemical investigation led to the isolation for the first time of a fatty acid ester: methyl linoleate (1), and three phenolics: syringaldehyde (2), vanillin (3), and dihydroconiferyl dihydro-p-coumarate (4) along with the previously reported compound gigantol (5). Among the isolates, vanillin (3) and dihydroconiferyl dihydro-p-coumarate (4) were found to significantly inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase, scavenge the free radicals, exhibit the reducing power and total antioxidant activity, and effectively reduce the peroxidation of lipid. Gigantol (5) and syringaldehyde (2), despite lacking the activity against acetylcholinesterase, exhibited antioxidant activity. Among the compounds, gigantol (5) appeared to be the most potent antioxidant. These findings revealed that V. roxburghii contained compounds with potential acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activity, which support its traditional use in the treatment of AD.

5.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 123, 2018 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622019

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the major causes of dementia, is an overwhelming neurodegenerative disease that particularly affects the brain, leading to memory loss and impairment of language and judgment capacity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of the leaves of Elatostema papillosum (EPL) and correlate with their phytochemical profiles, which are relevant to the treatment of AD. METHODS: The dried coarse powder of EPL was extracted with 80% methanol (EPL-M80) by cold extraction method. The resultant EPL-M80 was assessed for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity by the Ellman method. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. Quantitative phytochemical (phenolic and flavonoid contents) analysis of endogenous substances in EPL-M80 was performed by standard spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS: EPL-M80 significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited AChE and BChE activity with IC50 of 165.40 ± 4.01 and 213.81 ± 3.57 µg/mL, respectively in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, EPL-M80 exhibited strong radical scavenging activity against DPPH (IC50 = 32.35 ± 0.68 µg/mL) and hydroxyl radical (IC50 = 19.67 ± 1.42 µg/mL) when compared to that of standards. EPL-M80 was found to be rich in phenolic (23.74 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry extract) and flavonoid (31.18 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dry extract) content. Furthermore, a positive correlation (p < 0.001) was observed between the total phenolics and antioxidant as well as the anticholinesterase potential. CONCLUSIONS: The marked inhibition of AChE and BChE, and potent antioxidant activity of the leaves of Elatostema papillosum highlight its potential to provide an effective treatment for AD.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Encéfalo , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa , Fitoquímicos , Extractos Vegetales , Urticaceae/química , Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Animales , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/enzimología , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/química , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/farmacología , Femenino , Flavonoides , Masculino , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/química , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 15: 305, 2015 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26335564

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ethnopharmacological approach has explored several leads from plant sources to identify potential new drugs for various diseases including pain. Vanda roxburghii R. Br., an epiphytic orchid is widely distributed throughout Bangladesh. The root of this plant has a folkloric reputation to treat inflammations, fever, dyspepsia, bronchitis, hiccough, piles, snake bites, and diseases of the nervous system. In this study therefore, we aimed to investigate antinociceptive and cytotoxic properties of the extracts from the root of V. roxburghii. METHODS: Dried powder of aerial root of V. roxburghii was extracted with methanol (VRM) and the resultant was fractionated into petroleum ether (VRP), chloroform (VRC), ethyl acetate (VRE), and residual aqueous fraction (VRA). The antinociceptive effect of the extracts was evaluated in mice using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin injection, and hot plate tests. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay in vitro was used to evaluate cytotoxic activity of the plant extracts. RESULTS: In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, mice treated with different fractions (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited reduced number of writhing. Amongst, VRE showed the highest activity at all three concentrations (43.65, 71.34, and 80.23%, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner. Secondly, VRC (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) displayed the highest reduction of paw licking time in mice during the first phase of the formalin test (by 15.00, 37.05, and 56.44%, respectively) as well as during the second phase of the test (by 20.55, 49.08, and 59.81%, respectively). In hot plate test, VRE treatment at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg both increased the highest latency time after 30 min. All fractions showed lower cytotoxicity compared with the standard drug vincristine sulfate in the brine shrimp bioassay. CONCLUSION: Overall studies suggest that the root of V. roxburghii is effective as a potent analgesic with lower toxicity. Our findings support previous claims of traditional uses of V. roxburghii in different inflammatory disorders.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos , Orchidaceae/química , Extractos Vegetales , Analgésicos/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacología , Animales , Artemia/efectos de los fármacos , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Modelos Animales , Dimensión del Dolor , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
7.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 15: 195, 2015 Jun 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26100408

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively developing neurodegenerative disorder of the brain in the elderly people. Vanda roxburghii Rbr. root has been used traditionally in Bangladesh as tonic to brain and in the treatment of nervous system disorders including AD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the cholinesterase inhibitory activities and antioxidant properties of the extracts from V. roxburghii. METHODS: The crude methanol extract from the roots of plant was sequentially fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate and water to yield their corresponding extracts. The extracts were assessed for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by modified Ellman method and antioxidant property by several assays including ferric reducing antioxidant power, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and hydroxyl radical, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Endogenous substances in the extracts were analyzed by the standard phytochemical methods and active compound was isolated by the chromatographic methods. RESULTS: Chloroform extract was shown to demonstrate strong ferric-reducing antioxidant power and scavenging activity against DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals when compared with the other extracts and the reference standard catechin. The antioxidant effect was further verified by inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. Likewise, the chloroform extract exhibited the highest inhibition against both the acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes with IC50 values of 221.13 and 82.51 µg/ml, respectively. Phytochemical screening revealed a large amount of phenolics and flavonoids in the chloroform extract. Bioactivity guided separation techniques led to the isolation of a strong antioxidant from the chloroform extract and its structure was determined as gigantol on the basis of spectral studies. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the chloroform extract of V. roxburghii, possibly due to its phenolic compounds, exert potential antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activities, which may be useful in the treatment of AD.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Orchidaceae/química , Extractos Vegetales , Polifenoles , Animales , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cloroformo , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Polifenoles/química , Polifenoles/farmacología , Ratas
8.
Psychogeriatrics ; 14(1): 1-10, 2014 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24646308

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by loss of memory and cognition. The effective therapeutic options for AD are limited and thus there is a demand for new drugs. Aegle marmelos (Linn.) (A. marmelos) leaves have been used in traditional medicine to promote intellect and enhance memory. In this study, we evaluated A. marmelos for its acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant property in vitro in the treatment of AD. METHODS: A crude methanol extract and four fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous) were prepared from the leaves of A. marmelos. The preparations were assessed for AChE inhibitory activity by the Ellman method, and their antioxidant properties were assessed by several assays: reducing power, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical and hydroxyl radical, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of endogenous substances in A. marmelos were performed by the standard phytochemical methods. RESULTS: Among the different extracts tested, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest inhibition of AChE activity. In the same way, ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest reducing activity and radical scavenging ability towards the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 3.84 µg/mL) and hydroxyl free radicals (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 5.68 µg/mL). The antiradical activity of the ethyl acetate fraction appeared to be similar to that of the reference standard butylated hydroxytoluene and catechin used in this study. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction displayed higher inhibition of brain lipid peroxidation. Phytochemical screening of different extractives of A. marmelos showed the presence of phenols and flavonoids, alkaloid, saponin, glycoside, tannin and steroids. Quantitative analysis revealed higher contents of phenolics (58.79-mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract) and flavonoids (375.73-mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract) in the ethyl acetate fraction. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of A. marmelos is a significant source of polyphenolic compounds with potential AChE inhibitory property and antioxidant activity and, thus, may be useful in the treatment of AD.


Asunto(s)
Acetilcolinesterasa/efectos de los fármacos , Aegle/química , Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacología , Humanos , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Fenoles/química , Fenoles/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química
9.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 13: 142, 2013 Jun 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23800021

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of plants and their derived substances increases day by day for the discovery of therapeutic agents owing to their versatile applications. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants having anticancer properties from plant origin since oxidants play a crucial role in developing various human diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer properties of Sygygium fruticosum (Roxb.) (abbreviated as SF). METHODS: The dried coarse powder of seeds of SF was exhaustively extracted with methanol and the resulting crude methanolic extract (CME) was successively fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate to get petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and lastly aqueous (AQF) fraction. The antioxidant activities were determined by several assays: total antioxidant capacity assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The in vivo anticancer activity of SF was determined on Ehrlich's Ascite cell (EAC) induced Swiss albino mice. RESULTS: All the extractives showed strong antioxidant activities related to the standard. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the fractions was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>PEF>CHF. The TAC of EAF at 320 µg/mL was 2.60±0.005 which was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of standard catechin (1.37 ± 0.005). The ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity of the extracts was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>AA>CHF>PEF. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the IC50 value of EAF was 4.85 µg/mL, whereas that of BHT was 9.85 µg/mL. In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, the EAF showed the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 of 43.3 and 68.11 µg/mL, respectively. The lipid peroxidation inhibition assay was positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with both DPPH free radical scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic contents of SF were also positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with DPPH free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. Based on antioxidant activity, EAF was selected for cytotoxic assay and it was found that EAF inhibited 67.36% (p < 0.01) cell growth at a dose of 50 mg/kg (ip) on day six of EAC cell incubation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that EAF of seeds of SF possess significant antioxidant and moderate anticancer properties. Seeds of SF may therefore be a good source for natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/administración & dosificación , Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Semillas/química , Syzygium/química , Animales , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Bangladesh , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Ratones , Extractos Vegetales/química , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Syzygium/crecimiento & desarrollo
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 6: 24, 2013 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23331970

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antioxidants play an important role to protect damage caused by oxidative stress (OS). Plants having phenolic contents are reported to possess antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents (total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthrocyanidins) of methanolic extracts from Morus alba (locally named as Tut and commonly known as white mulberry) stem barks (TSB), root bark (TRB), leaves (TL) and fruits (TF) to make a statistical correlation between phenolic contents and antioxidant potential. METHODS: The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of methanolic extractives were evaluated by in vitro standard method using spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine) radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay methods. RESULTS: Among the extracts, TSB showed the highest antioxidant activity followed by TRB, TF and TL. Based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, the TSB extract was the most effective one with IC50 37.75 and 58.90 µg/mL, followed by TRB, TF and TL with IC50 40.20 and 102.03; 175.01 and 114.63 and 220.23 and 234.63 µg/mL, respectively. The TSB extract had the most potent inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation with IC50 145.31 µg/mL. In addition, the reducing capacity on ferrous ion was in the following order: TSB > TRB > TL > TF. The content of phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins of TSB was found to be higher than other extractives. CONCLUSION: The results indicate high correlation and regression (p-value <0 .001) between phenolic contents and antioxidant potentials of the extracts, hence the Tut plant could serve as effective free radical inhibitor or scavenger which may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant-based products. However, further exploration is necessary for effective use in both modern and traditional system of medicines.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Metanol/química , Morus/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/farmacología , Radical Hidroxilo/química , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos
12.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 10(12): 2073-7, 2007 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19093449

RESUMEN

The sub-acute toxicities of two compounds 3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (1) and 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (2) isolated from the plant Loranthus globosus Roxb were studied on long Evan's rats. The studies included the gross general observation such as changes in body weight, haematological profiles [total count of Red Blood Cells (RBC) and White Blood Cells (WBC), differential count of WBC, platelet count and Haemoglobin (Hb)%], biochemical parameters of blood [Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Alkaline Phosphatase (SALP), urea and creatinine) and histopathology of the liver, kidney, heart and lung of both control and experimental groups of rats. The changes in haematological and biochemical parameters were statistically not significant after the administration of compounds 1 and 2 in a dose of 300 microg/rat/day for consecutive 14 days. No abnormality was found in the histopathology of the liver, kidney, heart and lung in the experimental groups of rats following same dose when compared with control group. This preliminary study suggests that the isolated compounds may be used safely for clinical trial.


Asunto(s)
Loranthaceae/toxicidad , Propanoles/toxicidad , Animales , Recuento de Células Sanguíneas , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Corazón/efectos de los fármacos , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Riñón/patología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/patología , Loranthaceae/química , Pulmón/efectos de los fármacos , Pulmón/patología , Masculino , Miocardio/patología , Plantas Medicinales/química , Plantas Medicinales/toxicidad , Propanoles/administración & dosificación , Propanoles/aislamiento & purificación , Ratas , Ratas Long-Evans , Seguridad
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