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Nature ; 624(7991): 333-342, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38092915


The function of the mammalian brain relies upon the specification and spatial positioning of diversely specialized cell types. Yet, the molecular identities of the cell types and their positions within individual anatomical structures remain incompletely known. To construct a comprehensive atlas of cell types in each brain structure, we paired high-throughput single-nucleus RNA sequencing with Slide-seq1,2-a recently developed spatial transcriptomics method with near-cellular resolution-across the entire mouse brain. Integration of these datasets revealed the cell type composition of each neuroanatomical structure. Cell type diversity was found to be remarkably high in the midbrain, hindbrain and hypothalamus, with most clusters requiring a combination of at least three discrete gene expression markers to uniquely define them. Using these data, we developed a framework for genetically accessing each cell type, comprehensively characterized neuropeptide and neurotransmitter signalling, elucidated region-specific specializations in activity-regulated gene expression and ascertained the heritability enrichment of neurological and psychiatric phenotypes. These data, available as an online resource ( ), should find diverse applications across neuroscience, including the construction of new genetic tools and the prioritization of specific cell types and circuits in the study of brain diseases.

Encéfalo , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Animales , Ratones , Encéfalo/anatomía & histología , Encéfalo/citología , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/métodos , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Hipotálamo/citología , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Mesencéfalo/citología , Mesencéfalo/metabolismo , Neuropéptidos/metabolismo , Neurotransmisores/metabolismo , Fenotipo , Rombencéfalo/citología , Rombencéfalo/metabolismo , Análisis de Expresión Génica de una Sola Célula , Transcriptoma/genética
Neuron ; 94(1): 138-152.e5, 2017 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28384468


The basal ganglia (BG) integrate inputs from diverse sensorimotor, limbic, and associative regions to guide action-selection and goal-directed behaviors. The entopeduncular nucleus (EP) is a major BG output nucleus and has been suggested to channel signals from distinct BG nuclei to target regions involved in diverse functions. Here we use single-cell transcriptional and molecular analyses to demonstrate that the EP contains at least three classes of projection neurons-glutamate/GABA co-releasing somatostatin neurons, glutamatergic parvalbumin neurons, and GABAergic parvalbumin neurons. These classes comprise functionally and anatomically distinct output pathways that differentially affect EP target regions, such as the lateral habenula (LHb) and thalamus. Furthermore, LHb- and thalamic-projecting EP neurons are differentially innervated by subclasses of striatal and pallidal neurons. Therefore, we identify previously unknown subdivisions within the EP and reveal the existence of cascading, molecularly distinct projections through striatum and globus pallidus to EP targets within epithalamus and thalamus.

Ganglios Basales/metabolismo , Núcleo Entopeduncular/metabolismo , Neuronas GABAérgicas/metabolismo , Animales , Ganglios Basales/citología , Núcleo Entopeduncular/citología , Neuronas GABAérgicas/citología , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Globo Pálido/citología , Ácido Glutámico/metabolismo , Habénula/citología , Humanos , Hibridación Fluorescente in Situ , Sistema Límbico , Ratones , Neostriado/citología , Neuronas/citología , Neuronas/metabolismo , Parvalbúminas/metabolismo , Corteza Sensoriomotora , Análisis de la Célula Individual , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Tálamo/citología
Cell ; 154(5): 1023-1035, 2013 Aug 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23972393


Foraging animals have distinct exploration and exploitation behaviors that are organized into discrete behavioral states. Here, we characterize a neuromodulatory circuit that generates long-lasting roaming and dwelling states in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that two opposing neuromodulators, serotonin and the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), each initiate and extend one behavioral state. Serotonin promotes dwelling states through the MOD-1 serotonin-gated chloride channel. The spontaneous activity of serotonergic neurons correlates with dwelling behavior, and optogenetic modulation of the critical MOD-1-expressing targets induces prolonged dwelling states. PDF promotes roaming states through a Gαs-coupled PDF receptor; optogenetic activation of cAMP production in PDF receptor-expressing cells induces prolonged roaming states. The neurons that produce and respond to each neuromodulator form a distributed circuit orthogonal to the classical wiring diagram, with several essential neurons that express each molecule. The slow temporal dynamics of this neuromodulatory circuit supplement fast motor circuits to organize long-lasting behavioral states.

Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiología , Neuropéptidos/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Animales , Conducta Animal , Canales de Cloruro/metabolismo , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Neuronas/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo